I had a chance to travel for the first time from Kerman to Bam by car. After some kilometers a mountain chain appeared at our east side of the road and was with us to Bam city. The distance between Kerman and Bam is nearly 180 kilometers. When we traveled 50 or 60 km I saw a big fault on the mountain. The mountain chain was separated in two along the direction of the north- west to south- east parallel to the road. A clear broken mountain could be seen on the eastern part. The eastern part was creating a rift hidden and covered by falling western part on the feet of the eastern part over the rift. This rift has a narrow width near bam and wider width near Kerman. Till bam I couldn’t notice anything else. I had a lunch with my friend and went to Arg-e-Bam mud city. Bam has at least 2000 years of history and remained intact while constructions continued till some 100 years ago. With advent of the transport the new roads and means the mud city became a tourist attraction. The mud remained intact due to few 60 mm rain per year. The city was destroyed completely in the earthquake of December 2003.Besides, the Bam city itself that you know had near 50000 dead. The remaining walls in the mud city were inclined toward north-west. I made an experiment that while my friend helped me. I placed a small piece of stone on a piece of paper and dragging the paper to south- east and the stone felt in the some direction the walls declined. It is clear we have a drag force from Indian subcontinent toward Asian plate. I attended some lectures in the year 2004 on Bam earthquake, therefore after paying a visit to the mud city I paid a visit to the river flowing in the North of this mud city. All the building around a wide area, the river site, at 2003 was destroyed. It is good to mention that Iran was an ocean with sediments covering everything. The gentleman offering his book and a visitor mentioned that the military base in the middle north of the mud city is built over a big rock and that is why it remained safer. I think it is possible that a big stone felt from the sky and later with Indian subcontinent move some of the sedimentary cover of the ocean; much more ancient mountains came to the surface. This cover near Bam, due to movement of Indian subcontinent moved to east and as the river was clearly weakens by water flow collapsed. It is good to know that water is brought to Bam for agriculture by chains of the wells as well as south western mountains water sources. It will be good to make some piles across the river for more safety. As later I tried to study more Bam earthquake I noticed Taftan volcano further in the south- east of Bam. It had eruptions in 1902 and 1993. With the year 2003 the event of the earthquake and earthquakes of nearly 1st and 3rd December 2013 with 2.5 and 3.5 Richter, we can count the days between these events and dividing by 466.666 days of volcanic year, I explained in older articles, we can find a significant relation of volcanic action over these events. Then, it is a volcanic and depressive action of a fault. I tried to see the relation with Afar volcanic region of eastern Africa. The volcanic rift is along a line from Congo to Ethiopia/Eritrea. If you continue the line over this rift you arrive to south of Fars and Bushehr provinces. I saw 3D satellite radar measurements of how the ground moved in September 2005 between Dabahu and Gab’ho volcanoes. The picture shows the lines of forces due to separation forces these volcanoes were producing. It is like mountains of Fars and Bushehr Provinces and Kerman and Chain Mountains of “Zagros Chain”, the separation of a land in between. It is good for Iran, UAE, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and Iraq to follow east African volcanoes and cooperate with these governments from Congo to Eritrea. Great Britain, France and Switzerland do their advanced research in these fields as I know.
What I write is what I suppose an aspect of a phenomena and is not denying the other point of view. A friend told me in an apartment buildings construction, on the site he mentioned the rocks down to the buildings are fragile and he could easily be broken. When you have pressure to the soil due to plate tectonics or two faults moving side by side, the soil structure is crushed and if it is not a fault, soon it becomes a fault. Therefore, the constructions near such rocks might be very dangerous, because the soil structure might collapse. Why I mention this? Recent earthquakes in the south and west of Iran are due to the following reason.
Nearly, 50 million years ago, the Arabian plate arrived side by side to Iran and Northern Iraq. We can see two volcanoes near sea side of Persian Gulf and 3 in the nearby of the Gulf of Oman. In my point of view, as volcanoes of north of Iran from east to west: 7 volcanoes and volcanoes of south of Iran from east to west: 5 volcanoes had their activities, the Arabian plate was separated and went to the south. Persian gulf was created. Some ridge became active and Arabian plate began to pivot somewhere near Iraq- Turkey border, like two handle attached in one point to pivot. The nature of the earthquakes in the north of Iran is not the same and is due to pressures and crush of the stones and rocks, while, volcanic activities might create slopes and creeping of the mountains. But in the south we see the khurnes or the khoors ( more and less low and marshlands) showing expansion of the terrains making again slopes to mountains and low resistance lands. Anyhow injecting cement in these land ( under pressure or expansion could be useful under supervision. Or constructing the supporting walls. It is clear that gas and petroleum exploitations might affect the region as Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, UAE, Saudi Arabia are active in this field. As magma make more pressure in these regions, the magma pressure fall in the Persian Gulf. The Arabian plate pivots instead of outside, to inside. These oscillations create fatigue of some parts as well. It is to these Petroleum companies to cooperate and lessen the effects. It is not only earthquakes, but hurricanes, tornadoes and flood to take care and more programmed coordination.
I write this article that might be helpful though it is not anymore under public attention, unless people residing in that region. We had an article on November 17 under tittle:
Fast moving killer storm, tornadoes batter U.S. Midwest
If you look to the rivers map of Illinois, you see the rivers like Mackinaw, Vermilion, Sugar, Salt and Sangamon are flowing to west, and southwest more and less and rivers like Kaskaskia, Embarrass, little Wabash, and two others I didn’t see the name are flowing to east and southeast. I do not mention the Indiana Rivers. As it rains, the water flow over the mountains and make the air colder. The opposite side of rivers makes a moment forming a tornado, according to the rest of the weather conditions. What you can do, wherever in the world and facing time to time with such weather conditions is to make gates on the water paths or ways or small dams to have your water mills or electric production. You close the gates when the humidity pattern alerts you on tornadoes. The national weather center should have a software allowing to predict tornado and asking the gate or dams operators to close the gates. Of course the normal function has a cooling effect you cannot neglect. Do not use it as an arm as accumulation of stresses might be worse.
I studied several earthquakes but some became quiet and if continue to make more earthquakes I study them again. For moment in the North East of Iran we see more earthquake than North West. The cooling of the season could stop them as the Sahand, Sabalan, and Damavand become less active!? But of course taking care of the big fault of east Alborz chain, as I said before, going between Zirab and Maji could be a good solution. Of course working on the on the west side and making a joint or joints could help even for the south west of Iran. Let me mention something on recent Philippine typhoon. In the news we saw the origin of the typhoon was near Palau Islands. If you look to Palau Islands you see there are several volcanoes all around, from Guam to Palau, on the Ocean Basin. Choose an earthquake on Philippine islands on EMSC and see the Ocean basin on the map. It is to say, recently, EMSC asks for donations to serve better. What we see, on the ocean basin in the map near Palau, is a straight line toward the north, and a curve of third power from the east coming down to Palau Islands and branching, into more and less, three or four curves. These curves are similar to the path the typhoon had to reach the Philippine Islands. I would say another time the typhoon can change the direction and strength and goes to Brunei or Malaysia. If you look at Palau islands, the straight line becomes a curve and continues as a chain or a ridge or subduction. On the other hand trace a line tangent to this curve and trace a line in the middle of the path. This line is perpendicular to tangent. It is the place of the connectiopn between the curve with 3 degree or powew with the vertical line that can change his place according to circumstances. Let us see another aspect. F= mg is linear and m as x- coordinate and g as y- coordinate, f is a rectangle and surface under g line. E= (1/2)m(v)2 [ power of two for v] why (1/2) as m cannot be negative and v to power of 2 begin from negative m to positive m. again, we integrate, this time (1/6)k3 [power of three for k]. This should be constant ( according to first law of Newton: if any body is under no force, it stays without movement or move with a constant speed). And only 1/6 of m is used!? Besides, the development of human kind is like speeding a car and using too speedy might create some accidents. But, not using the new technology is a low development. We have to be careful. We are accustomed with using Euclidian geometry. Almost are building are regular geometrical volumes. We have to use something like flying saucer buildings in the coast of Philippine Islands. And construct some floors underground for reconstruction. The aerodynamic shape allows the light comes in and by mirrors; it is possible to enter more lights. Not only in Philippine but in all the coasts for new buildings. Recently, technologists are working on curved screen for mobile, but we are not working on saving our own life. If we construct the prefabricated curved parts for buildings, i8t would be cheap to construct such buildings. Just to will amelioration in construction industries for typhoon, hurricane corridors, or similar actions.
If we try to study the recent earthquake of Chile, near Coquimbo, we see in the nearby ocean basin an arc of underground volcanoes that end near Coquimbo. Now it is spring and summer is ahead for South America. It could be more than subduction and they need to cool it before summer arrives. This morning there was two near 4 point Richter earthquakes of Iraq southeast of Kirkuk and Iran South of Sarab. They show the pressure of Arabian plate toward northeast and before them we had in Guilan province as well 4 point Richter earthquake. In 3rd November we had an earthquake between Damavand and Firuzkuh. In the northwest of Iran the faults are northwest to southeast. In the Northeast of Iran they are usually southwest to Northeast. Western part is under push of Arabian plate and eastern part on pull of Oman Sea. But we Kirkuk as an oil field that might allow magma pressure comes more to surface and Sarab is under influence of Sahand volcano. Certainly several seismologists work on the subject and local seismologist know better the geology and geography of their region. As in the North of Sarab we have MeshkinShahr with hydrothermal possibility of energy production that might change the slope and therefore fixing some geological structure. In The earthquake of east of Damavand, we see near the Haraz road south -west of Amiri a big rock has been upside down due to Damavand eruption in the past. It is to fix it anyhow under supervision of Authorities. The direction of the faults in northwest of Iran shows there are more pressure to the western part than to eastern part. Therefore the eastern faults and western faults play like a flipper gate in flipper playing machines. It is to local geologists to study the details for a safer ground.
As fire continues in the nearby forests of Sidney, we had fire in the past in Australian woods and in other parts of Australia. For Sidney we can see on the eastern side of Australia a deep sea. In this sea, we have a mountain like height with some peaks. May be they are some pieces of lands sliding and going to the west. I cannot distinguish them on the map. It might be like Kish island, as I explained in some article, sometimes ago. The important is, if true, solving wood fires in Australia. these under water islands sliding more to the west near equator than further to south pole from it. There is the layer under these under water islands that moves under Australia. Therefore, the heights of Australia are results of this subduction!? It is these mountains making pressure to the coasts. If you place some supporting walls and structures to avoid the mountains moves, you might have these heats in the places that the heat fall in more dry lands. It is just a proposal to study.
The recent earthquake of 4 Richter near Khalkhal NW of this city according to Iran and west of Khalkhal according to EMSC is on the west border of a piece of sliding land. On the east of this land we have Rudbar, when a strong earthquake happened some 25 years ago. The Sabalan volcanic mountain erupted in the past and did in a manner that this land was broken in the present shape, being between Talesh, Kuh or mountain Aq Dagh, Rostamabad, Rudbar and KiaShahr. Several faults appeared and on the east pushing toward another piece containing Lahijan became concave and Anzali Lake appeared as the rain washed out the soil on the slope. You have some weak soil there and it might collapse again. You have to study where to construct several factories to make deep wells filling with armed concrete to make some strong basement for the region. You can ask foreign investment with a good return perspective. Anyhow take care, please, before something happens.
The science is based on the assumption that if something is true, it is true as long as the logic system we live with including this assumption meet no contradiction denying its truth. We see that French government is forbidding schist gas exploitations, recently. We had an earthquake of 4 Richter recently in northwest of France as well. When we have no exploitation of petroleum or gas, we have more pressure on the mountain as I mentioned in my last article. We have to see where fracking could be good. If it contaminate some water source, and due to above mentioned reason, you could take water from other regions for potable water, if necessary, to avoid a disaster. I write it as winter is ahead and we need energy all over the world.
In the North of Khorassan province, recently we had several earthquakes. Damavand volcano, as erupted in the past, pushed mountains in his sides and some moved to north and due to pressure these mountain became curved. As an example; in the north of Mashhad, we have a fault due to forces resulted from tectonics of Indian subcontinent pushing to north and trailing mountains in the east of Iran. This pull of mountains creates faults and later some sliding.
In the news, you had some series of earthquakes with maximum of 4.2 Richter near the coast, situated south of Barcelona, Spain. Geology of oil reservoirs is like pumice, with porosity. In the case of this Spain gas reservoir, they place their gas in this reservoir for future uses. They stopped to inject the gas into this reservoir and it seems the problem is solved. Looking to the natural map of Spain, you see Baleares Islands on the east of the Spain coast. You can see these islands are a sliding part of the main land. Why we had this slide? As the eastern part of Atlantic Ocean basin goes under Spain, the land become steep toward east and the mountains slide. We had, recently, several earthquakes in east of Spain and one of the causes could be what I mentioned. This is to study the geological structure of the region and to build supporting walls or the mechanisms I mentioned in my articles to absorb the shock, to reduce movement impact and etc. in the sea, they can dig the wells and fill with armored concrete to avoid more slides and ease of the gas reservoirs use.
You have a good analysis of Pakistan earthquake in the site of USGS, American geology site. But I try to see another aspect. We know Arabian plate pushes to the Iran and eastern Turkey, In Iran, near Ramhormoz or near Bushehr. In the north of the Bandar Kangan you have a mountain slide. That is why the piece of land containing Bushehr moved toward the north, and remains related to moves of the sliding mountain.150 km is the length of the mountain on the map. It is to study how to avoid more slides. Recently, we had an earthquake in Iranshahr as well. Looking to a global satellite map of the region, you see a gap between the mountains in the east of Iranshahr with base of the mountains, another slide. These mountains go to the north of Zahedan. What happened? Parallel to these mountains, another chain is in Pakistan. Due to pushes of Indian subcontinent toward the north, a part of this chain moved perpendicular to this chain and is situated like a bridge between these two chains. The slide of this mountains bridge, on the border of Pakistan and Afghanistan, did the slide of the chain situated in Iran. As Indian subcontinent pushes always toward the north, the mountains bridge become freer to move and we have Pakistan and south east Iran earthquakes. It is the tasks of Iran, Pakistan, and Afghanistan to define a project to avoid another big earthquake in the region. Of course, India or North of Iran might be in danger as well. It is a mechanism related to Zagross chain and at most to Alborz chain and Himalaya.